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DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & MENTAL HYGIENE

PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES


[photo, 201 West Preston St., Baltimore, Maryland] 201 West Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21201 - 2399

Public Health Services was established in 1987. The Deputy Secretary for Public Health Services is responsible for the Office of Chief Medical Examiner, Emergency Preparedness and Response, and four administrations: AIDS; Community Health; Family Health; and Laboratories. Public Health Services is aided by the Advisory Council on Prescription Drug Monitoring, the Community Services Reimbursement Rate Commission, the Health and Human Services Referral Board, and the Mortality and Quality Review Committee.

201 West Preston St., Baltimore, Maryland, March 2004. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.



AIDS ADMINISTRATION

500 North Calvert St., 5th floor, Baltimore, MD 21202

Created in 1987 as the AIDS Control Administration, the Administration received its current name in 1988. The AIDS Administration educates the public and health care professionals about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV). It monitors the disease in Maryland, and provides services for persons with AIDS or infected with HIV. The Administration consults and coordinates its work with twenty-four local health departments. Each local health department has counseling and testing sites that offer free tests and consultations.

Clinical activities for the diagnosis and evaluation of patients with AIDS are funded by the AIDS Administration. The Administration also directly operates drug assistance and insurance assistance programs for those living with HIV/AIDS.

The Administration is organized under two main functions: HIV Services; and Prevention, Evaluation, Surveillance, and Research.

HIV SERVICES

Within the AIDS Administration, HIV Services is responsible for two centers: HIV Care Services; and Prevention, Education, and Training.

CENTER FOR PREVENTION, EDUCATION, & TRAINING
The Center for Prevention, Education, and Training began in 1991 as the Division of Professional Education and Health Services. The Division formed by merging functions of the Division of Provider Education and Training with the Division of Patient Care Services. In 1994, the Division of Professional Education and Health Services reorganized as the Center for Professional Education and Patient Services, and in 1997 as the Center for Education and Training. In July 2004, it was restructured under its present name.

In 1997, when the Center for Quality Assessment and Improvement was abolished, most of its functions were assigned to the Center for Education and Training. Among these functions are the evaluation of the results of preventive care, early intervention, and treatment provided by the AIDS Administration; and the setting of high standards of clinical performance for State and federally funded HIV and AIDS services.

The Center for Prevention, Education, and Training educates health-care professionals about HIV and treats persons who are HIV infected. HIV diagnostic evaluation units where a person with HIV disease can be assessed by health-care professionals are funded by the Center. Staff consult with the patient's health-care provider to help that provider meet the patient's complex medical needs.

Under the Center for Prevention, Education, and Training are three divisions: Capacity Building and Training; Health Communications, Public Information, and Prevention for HIV Positive Persons (PHIPP); and Local Prevention and Provider Education.

CENTER FOR HIV CARE SERVICES
In 1989, the Division of AIDS Services, Planning, and Development was established. The Division became the Center for AIDS Services, Planning, and Development in 1994. It reorganized in 1997 as the Center for HIV Patient Services, and became the Center for HIV Health Services in 2001. Also in 2001, the Center for HIV Client Services was formed to operate programs to fund medication for eligible persons. In December 2006, that Center combined with the Center for HIV Client Services to form the Center for HIV Care Services.

The Center administers the federal Ryan White CARE Act Program. Through this and other federal and State programs, the Center assures that Marylanders living with or affected by HIV/AIDS have access to primary medical care, case management and dental care, as well as to other support services. Funds are awarded to local health departments, other government agencies, community and hospital-based health care facilities, and community organizations to provide these services. For housing assistance and related supportive services for individuals with HIV/AIDS, the Center also administers funds from the Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS (HOPWA) Program of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Through the Maryland AIDS Drug Assistance Program, the Center funds specified medications in the treatment of HIV and AIDS patients throughout Maryland. The Center also administers two health insurance programs: Maryland AIDS Drug Assistance Program-Plus (MADAP-Plus), and the Maryland AIDS Insurance Assistance Program (MAIAP).

PREVENTION, EVALUATION, SURVEILLANCE, & RESEARCH

Under the AIDS Administration, Prevention, Evaluation, Surveillance, and Research oversees the Center for Epidemiology and Health Services Research.

CENTER FOR EPIDEMIOLOGY & HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH
The Center for Epidemiology and Health Services Research started as the Center for AIDS Epidemiology and became the Center for AIDS Epidemiology and Analysis in 1997. It reorganized as the Center for Epidemiology and Health Research in 1998, and later that year combined with the Center for Health Data under its present name.

Through case surveillance, epidemiologic investigations, and seroprevalence and other studies, the Center determines the impact of the AIDS/HIV epidemic on Maryland's residents, institutions, and government. Data and information derived from studies are used by the Center and other organizations to design programs for prevention and health care, and support requests for federal funds.


COMMUNITY HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

201 West Preston St., 3rd floor, Baltimore, MD 21201 - 2399

The Community Health Administration originated in 1969 as the Local Health Services Administration. By 1973, it reorganized as the Local Health and Professional Support Services Administration and, by 1977, as the Local Health Administration. The Local Health Administration and the Family Health Administration merged in 1989 to form the Local and Family Health Administration. In January 1997, the Administration reformed as the Community and Public Health Administration. That administration divided into the Community Health Administration and the Family Health Administration in July 2001.

To ensure that basic public health services are provided in all parts of Maryland, the Community Health Administration oversees the local health departments in each county and Baltimore City. Under the direction of a local health officer, each local health department provides these services and administers and enforces State and local health laws and regulations in its jurisdiction. Programs meet the public health needs of the community and provide services not offered by the private sector. The local health officer is appointed jointly by the Secretary of Health and Mental Hygiene and the local governing body.

Under the Administration are four offices: Environmental Health Coordination and Regulatory Affairs; Epidemiology and Disease Control; Food Protection and Consumer Health Services; and Management Services.

OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH COORDINATION & REGULATORY AFFAIRS
In 1998, the Office of Environment Health Coordination and Regulatory Affairs was created as the Office of Environmental Health Coordination within the Community and Public Health Administration. It reorganized under its present name in November 2005 within the Community Health Administration. When environmental issues may impact public health, the Office coordinates its work with the Department of the Environment and local environmental offices.

The Office oversees the Office of Environmental Public Health Tracking, and the Preventive Medicine Residency Program.

OFFICE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY & DISEASE CONTROL
201 West Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21201 - 2399

The Office of Epidemiology and Disease Control began under the Community Health Surveillance and Laboratories Administration. That administration became the Community and Public Health Administration in 1997, and the Community Health Administration in July 2001. The Office works to control all communicable diseases affecting people in Maryland. The Office strives to contain hard-to-control diseases, such as hepatitis, influenza, sexually-transmitted diseases, and rabies. It also works to control acute communicable diseases, tuberculosis, nosocomial infections, and animal-borne diseases transmittable to humans. In addition, the Office supervises health programs for refugees and migrants.

Four centers are overseen by the Office: Clinical Epidemiology; Community Epidemiology; Immunization; and Veterinary Public Health.

OFFICE OF FOOD PROTECTION & CONSUMER HEALTH SERVICES
6 St. Paul St., Baltimore, MD 21202

The Office of Food Protection and Consumer Health Services started as the Office of Food and Product Health. It was renamed the Office of Food Protection and Consumer Health Services in 1988 under the Community Health Surveillance and Laboratories Administration. In 1997, it reorganized as Consumer Health and Facility Services under the Community and Public Health Administration. Since July 2001, it has been under the Community Health Administration.

By eliminating or minimizing exposure to or consumption of unsafe commodities and substances, the Office prevents disease, disability, and death. It controls the manufacture, distribution, and sale of milk, food, and consumer products. In addition, it establishes and enforces regulations regarding campgrounds and youth camps, migratory labor camps, mobile home parks, outdoor music festivals, and swimming pools.

The Youth Camp Safety Advisory Council assists the Office.

OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT SERVICES
The Office of Management Services was initiated in 1991 to consolidate administrative and fiscal functions of the Local and Family Health Administration. That administration became the Community and Public Health Administration in 1997, and the Office then was placed under Administrative, Policy and Management Support. In 2001, the Office moved to the Community Health Administration. The Office is responsible for budget management, personnel, information technology, telecommunications, fleet and space management, procurement, inventory control, and managing Core Public Health Services Funding.

Four divisions function under the Office: Fiscal; Information Technology; Personnel; and Procurement.

LOCAL HEALTH DEPARTMENTS

Local health administration preceded the organization of a State health department by nearly a century, when, in 1793, Baltimore City established a health office to stop an epidemic of yellow fever. The first county health department was formed by Allegany County in 1922. Each Maryland county by 1934 had established its own health department. State oversight of local departments was conducted within the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene by the Local Health Services Administration formed in 1969. The Administration reorganized by 1973 as the Local Health and Professional Support Services Administration and, by 1977, as the Local Health Administration. The latter reformed into the Local and Family Health Administration in 1989. That administration was renamed the Community and Public Health Administration in 1997, and reorganized as the Community Health Administration in 2001.

To ensure that basic public health services are provided in all parts of Maryland, the Community Health Administration oversees the local health departments in each county and Baltimore City. Under the direction of a local health officer, each local health department provides these services and administers and enforces State and local health laws and regulations in its jurisdiction. Programs meet the public health needs of the community and provide services not offered by the private sector. The local health officer is appointed jointly by the Secretary of Health and Mental Hygiene and the local governing body.


FAMILY HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

201 West Preston St., 3rd floor, Baltimore, MD 21201 - 2399

In 1987, the Family Health Administration originated under its current name. The Local Health Administration and the Family Health Administration merged in 1989 to form the Local and Family Health Administration. In January 1997, it became the Community and Public Health Administration. That agency in July 2001 divided into the Family Health Administration and the Community Health Administration.

The Family Health Administration works to prevent and control chronic diseases; prevent injuries; provide public health information; and promote healthy behaviors in Marylanders. Further, it strives to ensure that quality health care services are available, especially for at-risk and vulnerable people.

Under the Administration are Deer's Head Center and Western Maryland Center. The Administration also is responsible for the Center for Cancer Surveillance and Control; the Center for Health Promotion, Education, and Tobacco Use Prevention; and the Center for Maternal and Child Health. In addition, the Administration oversees five offices: Chronic Disease Prevention; Genetics and Children with Special Health Care Needs; Health Policy and Planning; Oral Health; and Women, Infants and Children Food Program.

DEER'S HEAD CENTER

P. O. Box 2018, Emerson Ave., Salisbury, MD 21802 - 2018

Authorized in 1945, Deer's Head Center was established in 1950 (Chapter 994, Acts of 1945). It is a regional facility for chronically ill and elderly adults in need of medical and rehabilitation services or general medical care for chronic disease or terminal illness. The Center also operates a kidney dialysis facility for area residents.

The Center provides the services of a chronic disease hospital (including a small hospice service) and a comprehensive care facility, as well as outpatient and end-stage kidney dialysis, and outpatient rehabilitation therapy. The licensed capacity for the Center is 188 hospital beds and 33 comprehensive care beds (Code Health-General Article, sec. 19-502).

WESTERN MARYLAND CENTER

1500 Pennsylvania Ave., Hagerstown, MD 21740

Western Maryland Center began as Western Maryland State Hospital. Authorized in 1952, the Hospital opened in 1957 (Chapter 53, Acts of 1952).

The Center provides chronic or rehabilitation hospital care, and comprehensive or nursing home care. The Center also offers adult day care; end-stage kidney dialysis; and physical, occupational, and speech rehabilitation to outpatients. It has 60 licensed hospital beds and 63 licensed comprehensive care beds (Code Health-General Article, sec. 19-502).

CENTER FOR CANCER SURVEILLANCE & CONTROL

In January 2000, the Center for Cancer Surveillance and Control formed. It assumed functions of the former Division of Cancer Control from the Office of Chronic Disease prevention, as well as oversight of the Maryland Cancer Registry. The Center plans, develops, and implements initiatives to reduce deaths and disabilities due to cancer.


[photo, 300 West Preston St., Baltimore, Maryland]

CENTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION, EDUCATION, & TOBACCO USE PREVENTION

300 West Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21201

In November 1993, the Center for Health Promotion, Education, and Tobacco Use Prevention formed from the Division of Health Education as the Office of Health Promotion, Education, and Tobacco Use Prevention. It was renamed the Office of Health Promotion, Education, and Tobacco Control in 1997, and adopted its present name by 2004.

300 West Preston St., Baltimore, Maryland, December 2000. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


The Center is responsible for six programs: Health in Pregnancy, a smoking cessation program; the Maryland Arthritis Project; Maryland Kids in Safety Seats (Maryland KISS); Planned Approach to Community Health (PATCH); Rape and Sexual Assault Program; and Tobacco Use Prevention. Initiatives of the Office enable individuals and institutions to change behaviors in health-enhancing ways.

Maryland Arthritis Project. Funded for two years by the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, this Project began in September 1999. It is setting up a surveillance system to collect epidemiological data on arthritis and related rheumatic conditions; formulating the Maryland State Arthritis Plan; and working to expand the role of the State Advisory Council on Arthritis and Related Diseases.

Maryland Kids in Safety Seats Program. To ensure children's safety as passengers in vehicles, this program began in 1980. It educates the public about what State law requires for child safety seats and restraints, and how to properly install and use them. A newsletter containing product information on child safety seats, product recalls, safety tips, instructions on proper installation, and related issues is published by the Program. To offer low-income families access to child safety seats, the Program also coordinates loaner programs statewide.

Tobacco Use Prevention Program. This program funds local school districts and health departments in their tobacco use prevention and cessation efforts. It support media campaigns on clean indoor air and smoke-free environments and other community programs that educate the public about tobacco use.

CENTER FOR MATERNAL & CHILD HEALTH

201 West Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21201 - 2399

The Center for Maternal and Child Health formed in January 2000 with the merger of the Office of Children's Health and the Office of Maternal Health and Family Planning.

The Office of Children's Health had been known as the Office of Child Health Services since 1989 when it was made part of the Local and Family Health Administration. In 1993, the Office became the Office of Child Health. In 1994, the Office of Child Health and the Office of Children's Medical Services merged to form the Office of Child Health and Children's Medical Services. Renamed the Office of Children's Health in 1995, it became part of the Community and Public Health Administration in 1997 and joined the Family Health Administration in July 2001.

In 1922, the Office of Maternal Health and Family Planning originated as the Bureau of Maternal and Child Health and Services to Crippled Children. The Bureau had become the Division of Maternal and Child Health under the Bureau of Preventive Medicine by 1951, under the Bureau of Preventive Medical Services by 1967, and under the Preventive Medicine Administration in 1969. The Division was renamed the Office of Maternal Health, Family Planning, and Hereditary Disorders by 1985. As the Office of Maternal and Child Health it was placed under the Family Health Administration in 1987. The Office joined the Local and Family Health Administration in 1989 and was renamed the Office of Maternal Health and Family Planning in 1990. As part of the Community and Public Health Administration since 1997, it transferred to the Family Health Administration in July 2001.

Since the merger of the Office of Children's Health with the Office of Maternal Health and Family Planning, the Center for Maternal and Child Health has worked to improve the health of women of childbearing age and their babies. With federal and State funds, the Center directs prenatal care and family planning services offered by local health departments and others. The Center also administers special grants to improve the reproductive health of adolescents and introduce new contraceptive techniques into the public health system.

For basic preventive services to safeguard the health of children, the Center administers State and federal funding to the local health department in each county and Baltimore City. These services include immunizations; screening for lead poisoning, vision, hearing and scoliosis; and counseling in basic nutrition. The Center also administers special grants, such as the grant to the University System of Maryland relating to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), or grants to Eastern Shore counties for preventive dental care for children. In addition, the Center offers training, consultation, and technical assistance to local health departments and the private sector.

For children whose chronic illnesses or disabling conditions interfere with normal growth and development, the Center helps families plan and obtain specialized medical and rehabilitative care. These conditions include cerebral palsy, orofacial anomalies, speech and language problems, spina bifida, heart disease and defects, hearing impairment, cystic fibrosis, chronic otitis media, chronic renal disease, and epilepsy. Many other diagnoses qualify a child to receive services if financial eligibility requirements also are met (Code of Maryland Regulations - COMAR 10.22.08.05B).

A joint federal, State and local program called Children's Medical Services, formerly Crippled Children's Services, is administered by the Center. While State funding for services to crippled children dates to at least 1922, the program has operated in Maryland since 1937 (Code Health-General Article, sec. 15-125).

Under the Center are Adolescent and Child Health; Community Initiatives and Partnerships; Family Planning and Reproductive Health; and Maternal and Perinatal Health.

OFFICE OF CHRONIC DISEASE PREVENTION

201 West Preston St., Room 300, Baltimore, MD 21201

The Center for Preventive Health Services originated as the Office of Chronic Disease Prevention which organized in the 1960s as the Regional Medical Program and later became the Adult Health Program. When the Local and Family Health Administration formed in 1989, the Program reorganized under it as the Office of Chronic Disease Prevention. The Office transferred to the Community and Public Health Administration in 1997, and became the Office of Chronic Disease Prevention and Public Health Residency Program under the Family Health Administration in 2000. It combined with the Office of Injury and Disability Prevention to form the Center for Preventive Health Services in May 2003. In June 2008, the Center again was renamed the Office of Chronic Disease Prevention.

OFFICE OF ORAL HEALTH

201 West Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21201

The Office of Oral Health focuses on improving the oral health of Marylanders and increasing their access to oral health care. The Office develops educational materials, including brochures on oral cancer, brushing and flossing techniques, healthy eating habits, and a children's guide to healthy oral habits. The Office also grants local health departments funds to develop oral health education and prevention programs and for community water fluoridation. To increase the number of dentists serving in Dental Health Professional Shortage Areas, the Office works with the University of Maryland Dental School.

Under the Office are the Maryland Dental-Care Loan Assistance Repayment Program and the Oral Cancer Prevention Pilot Program. The Office also is served by the Oral Health Advisory Committee.

OFFICE FOR GENETICS & CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL HEALTH CARE NEEDS

201 West Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21201 - 2399

In 1964, the first programs of the Office for Genetics and Children with Special Health Care Needs were initiated. These programs were assigned to the Division of Hereditary Disorders in 1973. Reorganized as the Office of Hereditary Disorders in 1990, the Office was placed under Family Health Services and Primary Care in 1997, and received its present name in March 2000. The Office has functioned under the Family Health Administration since July 2001.

The Office works to improve the early identification of children with special health care needs through newborn screening for metabolic diseases, sicle cell disease, chronic diseases, birth defects, hearing loss, and developmental problems. The Office coordinates alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) testing to pregnant women; screens nearly every newborn baby in Maryland for birth defects; treats genetic metabolic diseases and hemoglobin disorders, including sickle cell disease; and provides clinical services for other genetic disorders.

The Birth Defects Reporting and Information System (BDRIS) is maintained by the Office. The System collects data and provides information to parents of children with disorders and defects. Educational programs on genetics and genetic services are offered by the Office to health professionals, educators, and the general public. The Office also ensures that children receive timely specialized medical care and family support services.

INFANT HEARING PROGRAM
The Infant Hearing Program was established as the Program to Identify Hearing-Impaired Infants under the Developmental Disabilities Administration in 1985 (Chapter 402, Acts of 1985). In 1990, the Program transferred to the Office of Children's Medical Services and, in 1992, to the Office of Children's Health within the Local and Family Health Administration. In 1995, the Program became part of the Office of Child Health, which moved under the Community and Public Health Services Administration in 1997. The Program was placed under the Office of Hereditary Disorders in 1998. Reformed as the Universal Newborn-Hearing Screening Program in 1999, it moved under the Office for Genetics and Children with Special Health Care Needs in 2000 (Code Health-General Article, sec. 13-602; Chapter 127, Acts of 1999). The Program became part of the Family Health Administration in July 2001.

The Program provides early identification and follow-up of hearing-impaired infants and infants who are at risk of developing a hearing impairment. Since 1999, the Program has been required to help develop protocols for the universal screening of newborns' hearing (Chapter 127, Acts of 1999).

OFFICE OF HEALTH POLICY & PLANNING

In December 2004, the Office of Health Policy and Planning was established. Previously known as the Office of Health Policy, it formed in January 1996 to support strategic planning and related activities for the Community and Public Health Administration and the Department. In July 2001, the Office became part of the Community Health Administration and reorganized as the Office of Local Health in 2002.

The Office provides policy analysis, comprehensive strategic planning, and scientific program analysis for the Family Health Administration. Since July 2006, the Office also is responsible for statewide access to primary health care services and promoting availability of health services in rural areas. It staffs and coordinates the departmentwide Healthy Maryland Project 2010, and is preparing the Health Improvement Plan (a component of the Project).

Core Public Health Services Funding Program. The Office also administers this program to provide matching State funds to local health departments for vital programs, such as communicable disease control, maternal and child health services, and environmental health.

OFFICE OF WOMEN, INFANTS & CHILDREN FOOD PROGRAM

201 West Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21201 - 2399

Created by the Department in 1985, the Office of Women, Infants and Children Food Program joined the Family Health Administration in 1987. That administration was renamed the Local and Family Health Administration in 1989, the Community and Public Health Administration in 1997, and again the Family Health Administration in July 2001.

Maryland Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). The Program offers health and nutrition services, including supplemental foods, to pregnant, postpartum and breast-feeding women; infants to one year of age; and children to their fifth birthday. To be eligible, an individual also must meet income requirements and be at nutritional risk.

Funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Program is administered by the Office of Women, Infants and Children Food Program through grants to eighteen local agencies that serve the entire State. Each local agency determines recipient eligibility, prescribes individualized food packages, provides nutrition education, prepares required records and reports, and issues food instruments (negotiable checks used in exchange for approved foods). The Office ensures that Maryland's program accords with federal requirements (P.L. 95-627).


LABORATORIES ADMINISTRATION

201 West Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21201 - 2399

The Laboratories Administration was formed by the Department as the Community Health Surveillance and Laboratories Administration in 1987 and received its present name in January 1997.

The Laboratories Administration has broad responsibilities for laboratory testing to help physicians and health officials prevent, diagnose, and control human diseases. It performs examinations in connection with the enforcement of State health laws, and the chemical, microbiological, and radiological surveillance of the environment related to foods, waters, sewage, air, pharmaceuticals, and hazardous wastes. Laboratory tests are conducted to support State occupational safety and health regulations and to enforce pure food and drug laws.

To ensure the quality of laboratory services, the Administration develops standards and regulations for medical laboratories, tissue banks, and physician office laboratories. It also certifies and periodically inspects laboratories that examine water and dairy products for shipment out of Maryland.

In addition to a central laboratory in Baltimore and two regional laboratories, Laboratories oversees the Office of Laboratory Emergency Preparedness and Response as well as Regulatory and Administrative Programs, and Scientific Programs.

OFFICE OF LABORATORY EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS & RESPONSE
In July 2002, the Office of Laboratory Emergency Preparedness and Response was created within the Laboratories Administration as the Laboratory Bioterrorism Office. It was reorganized under its present name in November 2004. The Office develops procedures, trains staff, and coordinates State efforts to prepare for and respond to a bioterrorism attack. The Office also oversees the Biological Agents Registry.

REGULATORY & ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAMS

In November 2004, Regulatory and Administrative Programs formed to oversee the Division of Drug Control and six offices: Continuing Education and Training; Information Management Services; Laboratory Support Services; Quality Systems and Maintenance; Safety and Security; and Special Projects and Regulatory Programs.

DIVISION OF DRUG CONTROL
4201 Patterson Ave., 4th floor, Baltimore, MD 21215 - 2299

In 1951, the Division of Drug Control originated within the Bureau of Environmental Hygiene. Later transferred to the Office of Licensing and Certification, the Division of Drug Control reorganized in 1987 as the Office of Drug Control and joined the Community Health Surveillance and Laboratories Administration. The Office became part of the Laboratories Administration in 1997 and resumed its original name in November 2004.

The Division enforces the Controlled Dangerous Substance Act and ensures the availability of drugs for legitimate medical and scientific purposes while working to prevent drug abuse (Code Criminal Law Article, secs. 5-101 through 5-505). Division programs focus on physicians, dentists, veterinarians, pharmacists, manufacturers, distributors, pharmacies, and nonpharmacy establishments.

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMS

In November 2004, Scientific Programs organized to oversee the two regional laboratories and six divisions: Environmental Chemistry; Environmental Microbiology; Molecular Biology; Newborn and Childhood Screening; Public Health Microbiology; and Virology and Immunology.

ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY DIVISION
To help monitor and enforce environmental and consumer product safety laws, the Environmental Chemistry Division tests air, beverages, drugs, drinking water, foods, pharmaceuticals, sediments, sludges, soils, wastewater, and local flora and fauna. Tests are conducted to detect potentially toxic pollutants, such as pesticides, radioactivity, metals, and organic and inorganic compounds. For consumer safety, products are tested for tampering, characterization, and nutritional labeling.

ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY DIVISION
The Environmental Microbiology Division tests for disease-causing microorganisms in drinking water, swimming water, sewage treatment water, foods, shellfish and shellfish waters, and dairy products. Also, the Division certifies laboratories to test water, shellfish, and dairy products.

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY DIVISION
In the Molecular Biology Division, testing is carried out for HIV, rabies, West Nile virus, and other pathogens.

Five sections perform the Division's work: Molecular Diagnostics; Molecular Epidemiology; Molecular Imaging and Analysis; DNA Sequencing; and Rabies Zoonosis.

NEWBORN & CHILDHOOD SCREENING DIVISION
For every baby born in Maryland, the Newborn and Childhood Screening Division offers testing for numerous hereditary disorders. These include biotinidase deficiency; congenital adrenal hyperplasis; galactosemia; homocystinuria; maple syrup urine disease (MSUD); neonatal hypothyroidism; phenylketonuria (PKU); sickle cell anemia and other hemoglobinopathies; and tyrosinemia. As part of the State's Lead Poisoning Prevention Program, the Division also tests children's blood for elevated lead levels and environmental samples for lead contamination.

PUBLIC HEALTH MICROBIOLOGY DIVISION
The Public Health Microbiology Division began as the Division of Diagnostic and Public Health Microbiology and assumed its current name in November 2004. The Division provides diagnostic services, including processing patient specimens, recovering and identifying infectious agents, and assisting physicians in delivering proper antimicrobial therapy. For Maryland health care providers and institutions, the Division indentifies and confirms microbial agents: enteric and diarrheal; foodborne, fungal; gonococcal; parasitic; pertussis; and tuberculosis. These agents cause various diseases.

Four sections comprise the Division: Bacteriology; Mycobacteriology; Mycology; and Parisitology.

VIROLOGY & IMMUNOLOGY DIVISION
To detect viral and certain bacterial agents that cause diseases in humans, the Virology and Immunology Division conducts serological assays to determine the effectiveness of vaccines for hepatitis, measles, mumps, polio, rubella, and varicella. The Division conducts surveillance testing for sexually transmitted diseases; does cell culture isolations for epidemiological studies of respiratory virus outbreaks; and analyzes animal-borne agents, such as Hantaviruses, Lyme disease, rabies, and arboviruses, including encephalitis.


OFFICE OF CHIEF MEDICAL EXAMINER

111 Penn St., Baltimore, MD 21201

The Office of Chief Medical Examiner oversees a network of local deputy medical examiners and forensic investigators who investigate violent and suspicious deaths, and deaths unattended by physicians. These duties had been the responsibility first of local sheriffs, and then of local coroners from 1666 to the end of the nineteenth century. Then, they were assumed by justices of the peace. In 1939, these functions were assigned to deputy medical examiners (Chapter 369, Acts of 1939).

With the State Postmortem Examiners Commission, the Chief Medical Examiner appoints physicians as deputy medical examiners and forensic investigators in each county. The deputy medical examiners file with the Office of Chief Medical Examiner reports of all deaths investigated. Records of the Office are open for inspection to the family of the deceased and are acceptable in court as evidence of the facts contained.

The Chief Medical Examiner performs autopsies and provides the local state's attorney with copies of records concerning any death which requires further investigation. Appointed by the State Postmortem Examiners Commission, the Chief Medical Examiner oversees Administration, Autopsy Services, Statewide Services, Toxicology, and the Center for the Study of Health Effects of Fire.

CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF HEALTH EFFECTS OF FIRE
111 Penn St., 3rd floor, Baltimore, MD 21201

The Center for the Study of the Health Effects of Fire was created in 1988 (Chapter 185, Acts of 1988). The Center studies the health effects of exposure to fire; gathers and analyzes data on fire-related injury or death; and maintains both a registry of persons who suffer fire-related injury or death, and a computerized database concerning injuries and health effects of fire. For information routinely collected about fires, the Center is a repository. Information collected by the Center and intended for use in research, however, is confidential and not discoverable or admissible as evidence in a civil or criminal action to determine cause of death or liability for injury or death.

Pilot studies on issues or factors affecting injuries from or the health effects of fire are funded by the Center which also applies for federal or private research grants to investigate such issues. In addition, the Center communicates with national scientific data bases on toxicology, chemistry, epidemiology, and related scientific disciplines; collaborates with agencies, such as the National Bureau of Standards, that are involved in programs related to health effects of fire; and promotes interest in fire-related issues at educational institutions in Maryland (Code Health-General Article, secs. 18-701 through 18-711).

TOXICOLOGY


OFFICE OF PREPAREDNESS & RESPONSE

In April 2004, the Office of Preparedness and Response began as Emergency Preparedness and Response to coordinate Departmental response to any hazardous health situations, including natural disasters, such as blizzards and hurricanes, as well as biological, chemical or nuclear incidents. In February 2006, Emergency Preparedness and Response merged with the Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response. The Office had been established under the Community Health Administration in October 2002 to upgrade Maryland's readiness and response capability for public health threats and emergencies, such as bioterrorism and infectious disease outbreaks. The merger formed the Office of Preparedness and Response in February 2006.

The Office of Preparedness and Response plans for rapid mobilization of public health personnel, and ensures that they are organized, trained, and equipped for all types of hazards. The Office coordinates the Maryland Professional Volunteer Corps, trained health care professionals who provide emergency care during catastrophic events. The Office also is responsible for the Department's Emergency Management Team. On-call 24 hours a day, the Team responds to any health emergency such as a natural disaster, or act of bioterrorism.


STATE ANATOMY BOARD

655 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201

Authorized in 1947, the State Anatomy Board was organized in 1949 (Chapter 669, Acts of 1947). The Board's purpose is to ensure the proper distribution of cadavers to qualified hospitals, medical schools, and other agencies engaged in medical education and research. Bodies are distributed equitably to the anatomy department of each medical school in Maryland. The Board also carries out the legal provisions regulating Consent to Post Mortem Examination (Chapter 315, Acts of 1961) and the Anatomical Gift Act (Chapter 467, Acts of 1968).

The Board consists of two representatives from each of the departments of anatomy of medical schools in the State of Maryland and one representative of the Department of Anatomy of the University of Maryland School of Dentistry. Members of the Board are designated by the administrative officers of each school (Code Health-General Article, secs. 5-401 through 5-409).

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